2022. no 2. Alan Fisher
The Crimean Tatars*
Annotation. This article is a continuation of the translation from English of the famous historian Alan Fisher’s scientific work “The Crimean Tatars”. A. Fisher was always interested in the history of the Ottoman Empire and Turkic peoples. His work “The Crimean Tatars” was published in 1978 in the USA.
The second part of his work covers the following items: 1. Crimean Tatars in Imperial Russia (Russian interest in the Crimea). 2. Catherine II. 3. War of 1768–1774. 4. Russian success with Nogay Tatars. 5. Kaplan Giray. 6. Russian invasion. 7. Russian-Crimean Treaty. 8. Sahib Giray in power. 9. Second Russian invasion. 10. Şahin Giray`s policies. 11. Crimean opposition to Şahin. 13. Crimean colonization. 14. Third Russian invasion. 15. Şahin Giray`s reforms begun anew. 16. Final Russian invasion. 17. Reorganization of the Crimea.
On the whole this part of work covers political and economic conditions under which Crimea came under the rule of Russia.
Keywords: Crimean Tatars, Nogay Tatars, invasion, political system, economic system, Şahin Giray, ruling khan, Ottoman Empire, Catherine II, reorganization of the Crimea.
For citation: Alan Fisher. The Crimean Tatars (2). Trans. from English Seytkhalilova L., Alieva A. Krymskoe istoricheskoe obozrenie = Crimean Historical Review. 2022, no. 2, pp. 99–128. DOI: 10.22378/kio.2022.2.99-128 (In Russian)
6. Russian Interest in the Crimea
- lurii Krizhanich, Politika (Moscow, 1965), pp. 382–83, 435, 482; M.N. Berezhkov, “Plan zavoevaniia Kryma, sostavlennyi luriem Krizhanichem.” ZhMNP 127 (1891), pp. 483–517, and 128(1891), pp. 65–119.
- Fisher. “Azov”; B.H. Sumner, Peter the Great and the Ottoman Empire (London. 1949).
- Francis Ley, Le Marĉchal de Münnich et la Russle au XVIIIe Siĉcle. (Paris, 1959); Inalcik. “Kirim Hanliği,” p. 750. The important Tatar library of Khan Selim Giray I was totally destroyed too–it held many of the most important Tatar chronicles and manuscripts.
- N. Borzenko and A. Negri, “Bakhchisaraiskaia, arabskaia i turetskaia nadpisi khanskago dvortsa,” ZOOID 2 (1848), pp. 491–94, for evidence of those portions of the surviving palace rebuilt by Selamet Giray. M. Mironov, “K istorii pogranichnykh nashikh snosheniia s krymskim khanstvom,” Kievskaiastarina II (Feb. 1885), pp. 339–56.
- M.L. Vorontsov, “Opisanie sostoianiia del vo vremia Gosudaryni Imperatritsy Elizavetu Petrovny,” Arkhiv Kniazia Voronstova 25 (Moscow, 1882), pp. 308–10; A. Sergeev, “Doklad Imperatritse Ekaterine II-oi po vstuplenii Eia na Prestol, izobrazhaiushchii sistemu Krymskikh Tatar,” ITUAK 53 (1916), pp. 190–93.
- V. Ulianitskii, Russkiia konsul’stva granitseiu v XVI!I veke (Moscow, 1899), vol. I, pp. 445–50.
- A. Fisher, The Russian Annexation of the Crimea 1772–1783 (Cambridge, 1970), p. 28, for a discussion of this Turkish document and Nikiforov’s exit.
- I.H. Uzunçarşili, Osmanli Tarihi (Ankara, 1956) vol. 4. pl. I, p. 370.
- This campaign has been discussed in detail by the most historians of the Crimea because of one chance event. A French agent Baron de Tott accompanied the khan in this battle and left a colorful account of it.
- Halim Giray Sultan. Gülbün-i Hanan, passim. Fisher. “Crimean Separatism.”
- A. Skal’kovskii, ”O Nogaiskikh tatarakh,” p. 153; E. I. Druzhinina. Kiuchuk- kainardzhiiskii mtr 1774 goda: ego podgotovka i zakliuchenie (Moscow. 1955). p. 108.
- Boris Nolde, La formation de l’empire russe (Paris. 1952–1953), vol. 2, p. 59; Necati Efendi. “Zapiski Mukhammeda Nedjati Efendi.” Russkaia starina (March 1894). p. 132.
- “Politicheskaia perepiska Imperatritsy Ekateriny II.” SIRIO 97, pp. 245–46.
- “Bumagi Imperatritsy Ekateriny II.” SIRIO 13. p. 129; Fisher, Russian Annexation, pp. 40–43.
- Halim Giray Sultan, p. 183. Selim Giray’s tomb is in the cemetery of the mosque of Ayas Pasha in Istanbul, and on the stone he is described as “a patriot.” Howorth, pp. 596–97.
- Fisher, Russian Annexation, pp. 45–47.
- Ibid., pp. 49–51.
7. The Crimean Independent Slate and Russian Annexation
- See Fisher, Russian Annexation, where no satisfactory explanation of this question emerges.
- Ibid., pp. 57–60.
- Ibid., p. 61.
- Ibid., pp. 60–63; “Arkhiv voenno-pokhodnoi kantseliarii grafa P.A. Rumiantseva-Zadunaiskago,” Chtentia 56, pp. 16–18.
- Fisher, Russian Annexation, pp. 62–64; Nolde, vol. 2, pp. 123–25, claims that the Ottomans sent Devlel on this mission and aided his administration. There is no evidence for this in the Turkish sources.
- “Diplomalicheskaia perepiska Imperatritsy Ekateriny II,” SIRIO 135, p. 266.
- “Diplomaticheskaia perepiska,” p. 441.
- Ahmet Cevdet, Cevdet Tarihi 2nd cd. (Istanbul, 1854), vol. I. p. 131.
- N.F. Dubrovin. Prisoedtnenie kryma k rossii (St Petersburg. 1885–1889). vol. I, pp. 56–78, for a series of reports on Devlet’s problems; Cevdet, vol. I, pp. 124 25.
- N. Grigorovich, Kantsler Kniaz A. A. Bezborodko. SIRIO 26, p. 369.
- Fisher, Russian Annexation, pp. 73–81.
- “Arkhiv … Rumiantseva Zadunaiskago,” p. 116; “Pis’ma grafa N.I. Panina k Imperatritse Ekaterine Velikoi.” Arkhiv kniazia vorontsova 26 (1882). p. 153.
- Uzunçarşili, vol. 4, pl 1, p. 446.
- Dubrovin, Prisoedinenie, vol. 1, pp. 498–99; Fisher, Russian Annexation, pp. 82–84.
- F.F. Lashkov. **Shagin-Girei,” Kievskaia starina (Sept 1886). p. 57; Skal’kovskii. “Zaniatie kryma,” pp. 9–11.
- Dubrovin. Prisoedinenie. vol. I. p. 654.
- Fisher. Russian Annexation, pp. 86–90; Karaim Rabbi Azaria Iliia. “Sobytiia sluchivshiiasia v krymu,” Vremennik imperatorskago moskovskago obshchestva istorii i drevnostei rosstiiskikh 24 (1854), pp. 103–14.
- Fisher, “Administration …. Empires,” passim.
- Azaria Iliia. passim. A.L. Bert’e*Delagard, ”K istorii Khristianstva v krymu,” ZOOID 28 (1910). p. 66.
- N.F. Dubrovin. “Bumagi Kniazia … Potemkina-Tavricheskago,” Sbornik voenno- istoricheskikh materialov 6 (1893), pp. 26–29.
- Uzunçarşili. vol. 4, pL I, p. 447; Inalcik. “Çerkes,” pp. 24–25.
- Dubrovin. Prisoedtnenie. vol. 2, pp. 4. 92; S. Safonov. “Ostatki grecheskikh legionov v rossii,” ZOOID I (1844). p. 218.
- Grigorovich, p. 93.
- On the Christian exodus, see Marc RaefT, “The Style of Russia’s Imperial Policy and Prince G.A. Potemkin.” in G.N. Grob. ed., Statesmen and Statecraft of the Modern West (Barre. Mass., 1967), pp. 1–52; fisher. Russian Annexation, pp. 100–105; Nolde, vol. 2, pp. 140–52; Gavriil arkhiepiskop. “Pereselenie grekov iz kryma.” ZOOID I (1844). p. 197.
- Dubrovin. Prisoedinenie. vol. 2, pp. 92–93.
- Ibid., vol. 4. p. 508.
- Ibid., p. 512.
- “Bumagi Imperatrilsy Ekateriny II.” S1RIO 27, p. 232.
- Dubrovin. Prisoedinenie. vol. 4, pp. 931–32; “Bumagi … Ekateriny II.” SIRIO 27, pp. 222–23.
- PS.Z. scries I. vol. 21 no. 15.707. p. 897.
- Grigorovich, pp. 530–32.
8. Reorganization of the Crimea
- See A. Fisher, “The Administration of Subordinate Nationalities,” and Fisher. “Enlightened Despotism and Islam.” for fuller treatments of this subject.
- Chantal Lemercier-Quelquejay. “Les missions orthodoxes en Pays Musulmans de moyenne-et basse-Volga, 1552 1865,” Cahiers 8. no. 3 (1967), pp. 369–403.
- P.S.Z. series 1, vol. 11, no. 8664, pp. 719–20; E.A. Malov. O novokreshchenskoi kontore (Kazan. 1873).
About the author: Fisher Alan W. is associate professor of history at Michigan State University, the USA. Professor Fisher has received several grants for study abroad. He was given support by the American Research Institute in 1969 and 1976 as well as the ACLS for research in Turkey during 1976–1977. His work The Crimean Tatars is the first in the series of volumes that examine the history and development of non-Russian nationalities in the Soviet Union. Professor Fisher examines the history of the Crimean Tatars from the mid-fourteenth century to the present, making use of primary source materials in several European languages, including Russian, as well as the Crimean and Turkish languages.
About the translators: Leylya S. Seyitkhalilova – laboratory assistant researcher of the Crimean Scientific Center, Marjani Institute of History of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (420111, Baturin Str.,7A, Kazan, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org Arzy Yu. Alieva – freelance employee of the Crimean Scientific Center, Marjani Institute of History of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (420111, Baturin Str., 7A, Kazan, Russian Federation); email@example.com
* Translation from English by L.S. Seythalilova, A.Yu. Alieva. Translation is based on publication: Fisher, Alan W. The Crimean Tatars. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1978. Continuation. See the beginning in: Alan Fisher. The Crimean Tatars. Trans. from English Seytkhalilova L., Alieva A. Krymskoe istoricheskoe obozrenie=Crimean Historical Review. 2022, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 58–114. DOI: 10.22378/kio.2022.1.58-114 (In Russian).