2021. no 2. Eldar Seidametov
Situation of Tatars and other Muslim minorities
in communist Bulgaria
(Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences;
F. Yakubov Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University )
Annotation. The article examines the situation of the Tatars and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria during the communist period.
The policy of the state in relation to Muslim minorities after the proclamation of the People`s Republic of Bulgaria and the establishment of socialism in the state according to the Soviet model, when the political, economic and social models of the USSR were imported and introduced without taking into account the national characteristics of Bulgaria, are analyzed.
As in the Soviet Union (especially in the early stage of its formation, religion was banned and this applied to all confessions without exception. The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) made every effort eradicate religious identity and, in particular, Islamic identity. It was planned to replace the religious ideological fragment with a socialist one, and then, on its platform, form and stimulate the development of the national, modernist and Soviet identity of Muslims. Moreover, the emphasis was also placed on improving the way of life and the material situation of the Muslim population, which, according to the Marxist theory of culture, should have contributed to a more effective formation of socialist consciousness. The ruling party saw in the Muslim religious consciousness and rudiments of the Ottoman past, an obstacle on the way of socialist progress and formation of socialist consciousness. Emasculating elements of the religious worldview from the mind of people, the BCP set itself the task of creating a modern, secular, socialist personality. To this end, in 1946–1989 the government implemented a number of economic, educational and cultural establishments.
Keywords: diaspora, socialism, communism, modernism, secularism, nationalism, the “revival process”, Muslim minorities, the Tatars.
For citation: Seidametov E. Kh. Situation of Tatars and other Muslim minorities in communist Bulgaria. Krymskoe istoricheskoe obozrenie=Crimean Historical Review. 2021, no. 2, pp. 20–32. DOI: 10.22378/kio.2021.2.20-32
1. Antonov S. Tatarite v B”lgariya [Tatars in Bulgaria]. Dobrich: Navrez, 2004. 207 s. (In Bulgarian)
2. Konstitutsiya Narodnoy Respubliki Bolgariya 1947 goda [Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, 1947] // Zakonodatel’stvo Bolgarii [Legislation Bulgaria]. Available at: http://bulgaris.ru/Kons1947_.html (last accessed: 18.08.2021). (In Russian).
3. Mileva M. B”lgarskite turtsi-preselnitsi v Republika Turtsiya (Kultura i identichnost) [Bulgarian Turks-Migrants in the Republic of Turkey (Culture and Identity.)]. Under scientific. ed. prof. Tsvetana Georgieva. Sofia, 2006.208 p. (In Bulgarian).
4. Amnesty International: Bulgaria killing ethnic Turks. Available at: http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1986/Amnesty-International-Bulgaria-Killing-Ethnic-Turks/id-873babd8c97c534817cc4105254b16ac (last accessed: 18.08.2013).
5. Brubaker R. Aftermath of Empire and the unmixing of peoples: historical and comparative perspectives. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 1995. No. 18 (2). Pр. 189–218.
6. Demirtaş-Coşkun B. Turkish-Bulgarian relations in the post-cold war era: the exemplary relationship in the Balkans. Turkish yearbook of international relations. 2001. Vol. 32. Pр. 25–60.
7. Destroying Ethnic Identity: The Gypsies of Bulgaria. Helsinki Watch Report. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991. 73 p.
8. Dimitrov V. In Search of a Homogeneous Nation: The Assimilation of Bulgaria’s Turkish Minority, 1984–1985. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe. Available at: http://www.ecmi.de/fileadmin/downloads/publications/JEMIE/JEMIE01Dimitrov10-07-01.pdf (last accessed: 18.08.2021).
9. Eminov A. Turkish and Other Muslim Minorities on Bulgaria. New York: Routledge, 1997. 218 p.
10. Eminov A. Turks and Tatars in Bulgaria and the Balkans. Nationalities Papers.2000. Vol. 28. No. 1. Pр. 129–164.
11. Eren N. Crimean Tatar Communities Abroad. The Tatars of the Crimea. Return to the Homeland. Еd. Edward Allworth. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1998. Pр. 323–351.
12. Hoca. Bulgaristan`daki müslümanların durumu [The situation of Muslims in Bulgaria]. Emel [Goal]. 1981. No. 125. S. 38. (In Turkish)
13. Höpken W. From religious identity to ethnic mobilization: the Turks of Bulgaria before, under and since communism. [Eds Hugh Poulton, Suha Taji-Farouki] Muslim Identity and the Balkan State. London: Hurst & Company, 1997. Pр. 54–81.
14. Konstantinov Y. Strategies for sustaining a vulnerable identity: the case of the Bulgarian pomaks. Muslim Identity and the Balkan State. Ed. Hugh Poulton, SuhaTaji-Farouki. London: Hurst & Company, 1997. Pр. 33–53.
15. Küçükcan T. Re-claiming Identity: Ethnicity, Religion and Politics among Turkish-Muslims in Bulgaria and Greece. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 1999. Vol. 19. No. 1. Pр. 49–68.
16. Muyhtar F. The Human Rights of Muslims in Bulgaria in Law and Politics since 1878. Sofia, 2003. 132 p.
17. Neuburger M. The Orient Within: Muslim Minorities and the Negotiation of Nationhood in Modern Bulgaria. London Cornell University Press, 2004. 223 p.
18. Özgür-Baklacioglu N. Dual Citizenship, Extraterritorial Elections and National Policies: Turkish Dual Citizens in the Bulgarian-Turkish Political Sphere. Available at: http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/coe21/publish/no9_ses/18_nurcan.pdf (last accessed: 18.08.2021).
19. Parlaa A. Remembering across the border: Postsocialist nostalgia among Turkish immigrants from Bulgaria. American Ethnologist. 2009. Vol. 36. No. 4.
20. Seytmuratova A., Tuna I. Genocide Bulgarian-style. RCDA. 1984. Vol. XXIII. No. 7, 8, 9. P. 125,127.
21. Şimşir B. N. Bulgaristan Türkleri [Bulgarian Turks]. Ankara: Bilgi Yayınevi, 1986. 403 s. (In Turkish)
22. Vassilev R.V. Post-Communist Bulgaria’s Ethnopolitics. The Global Review of Ethnopolitics. 2001. Vol. 1, No. 2. P. 37–53.
23. Volgyi B. B. Ethno-Nationalism during Democratic Transition in Bulgaria: Political Pluralism as an Effective Remedy for Ethnic Conflict. York, 2007. 73 p.
24. Williams B. G. A Homeland Lost. Migration, The Diaspora and the Forging of Crimean Tatar National Identity: A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (History). Madison, 1999. 726 p.
About the author: Seidametov Eldar Khalilovich – Cand. Sci. (History), Associate Professor of the Department of History of the State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education of the Republic of Crimea “F. Yakubov Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University” (295015, Simferopol, Uchebniy lane, 8, Russian Federation); Head of the Crimean Scientific Center of Sh. Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (420111, Kazan, Baturin Str., 7A, Russian Federation); email@example.com